Rationale and design of the echocardiographic study of hispanics/latinos (ECHO-SOL)

Carlos J. Rodriguez*, Ajay Dharod, Matthew A. Allison, Sanjiv J. Shah, Barry Hurwitz, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, Franklyn Gonzalez, Dalane Kitzman, Linda Gillam, Daniel Spevack, Rupal Dadhania, Sarah Langdon, Robert Kaplan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Information regarding the prevalence and determinants of cardiac structure and function (systolic and diastolic) among the various Hispanic background groups in the United States is limited. Methods and Results: The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) ancillary study recruited 1,824 participants through a stratifiedsampling process representative of the population- based Hispanic Communities Health Study - Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) across four sites (Bronx, NY; Chicago, Ill; San Diego, Calif; Miami, Fla). The HCHS-SOL baseline cohort did not include an echo exam. ECHO-SOL added the echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function to an array of existing HCHS-SOL baseline clinical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic data and provides sufficient statistical power for comparisons among the Hispanic subgroups. Standard twodimensional (2D) echocardiography protocol, including M-mode, spectral, color and tissue Doppler study was performed. The main objectives were to: 1) characterize cardiac structure and function and its determinants among Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups; and 2) determine the contributions of specific psychosocial factors (acculturation and familismo) to cardiac structure and function among Hispanics. Conclusion: We describe the design, methods and rationale of currently the largest and most comprehensive study of cardiac structure and function exclusively among US Hispanics. ECHO-SOL aims to enhance our understanding of Hispanic cardiovascular health as well as help untangle the relative importance of Hispanic subgroup heterogeneity and sociocultural factors on cardiac structure and function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-186
Number of pages7
JournalEthnicity and Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015


  • Cardiovascular
  • Echocardiography
  • Epidemiology
  • Hispanics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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