Re-examining dominance of categories in impression formation: A test of dual-process models

Brian M. Monroe*, Bryan L. Koenig, Kum Seong Wan, Tei Laine, Swati Gupta, Andrew Ortony

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


We carried out tests of the first 2 premises of the Continuum Model (CM) of impression formation (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990). These premises predict that category information will in general be more influential than noncategory information, and that the fit of noncategorical attributes with the category is a major determinant of the relative influence of these types of information. Using stimuli that included sets of (a) text items only, and (b) combinations of photos and text items, we found no support for these claims, even using alternative tests. In addition, many positive effects found in our analyses run counter to the predictions of the CM. We conclude that either significant portions of dual-process models (also, Brewer, 1988) are not applicable to many previously claimed scenarios of impression formation, or that although pieces of them may be roughly accurate, reasonable questions arise as to their predictive and discriminant validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-30
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • Dual-process models
  • Impression formation
  • Information integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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