Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pediatric patients during and after cardiac surgery

Hannah G. Piper, Jamin L. Alexander, Avinash Shukla, Frank Pigula, John M. Costello, Peter C. Laussen, Tom Jaksic, Michael S D Agus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES. Given the demonstrated benefit of euglycemia in critically ill patients as well as the risk for hypoglycemia during insulin infusion in children, we sought to validate a subcutaneous sensor for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pediatric patients during and after cardiac surgery. METHODS. Children up to 36 months of age who were undergoing cardiac bypass surgery were recruited. After anesthetic induction, a continuous glucose-monitoring system sensor (CGMS, Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) was inserted subcutaneously. Sensors remained in place for up to 72 hours. Arterial blood glucose was measured intermittently in the central laboratory (Bayer Rapidlab 860, Tarrytown, NY). Sensor data, after prospective calibration with 6-hourly laboratory values using the proprietary Medtronic Minimed Guardian RT algorithm, were compared with all laboratory glucose values. Statistical analysis was performed to test whether sensor performance was affected by body temperature, inotrope dose, or body-wall edema. RESULTS. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study for a total of 40 study days and 246 paired sensor and laboratory glucose values. Consensus error grid analysis demonstrated that 72.0% of sensor value comparisons were within zone A (no effect on clinical action), and 27.6% of comparisons were within zone B (altered clinical action of little or no effect on outcome), with a mean absolute relative deviation of 17.6% for all comparisons. One comparison (0.4%) was in zone C (altered clinical action likely to affect outcome). No significant correlations were found between sensor performance and body temperature, inotrope dose, or body-wall edema. All patients tolerated the sensors well without bleeding or tissue reaction. CONCLUSIONS. Guardian RT real-time subcutaneous blood glucose measurement is safe and potentially useful for continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill children. Subcutaneous sensors performed well in the setting of hypothermia, inotrope use, and edema. These sensors facilitate identifying and following the effects of interventions to control blood glucose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1176-1184
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Cardiac surgery
  • Glucose monitoring
  • Hyperglycemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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