With high-resolution network transmission required for telemedicine, education, and guided-image acquisition, the impact of errors and transmission rates on image quality needs evaluation. Methods: We transmitted clinical echocardiograms from 2 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research centers with the use of Motion Picture Expert Group-2 (MPEG-2) encoding and asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) network protocol over the NASA Research and Education Network. Data rates and network quality (cell losses [CLR], errors [CER], and delay variability [CVD]) were altered and image quality was judged. Results: At speeds of 3 to 5 megabits per second (Mbps), digital images were superior to those on videotape; at 2 Mbps, images were equivalent. Increasing CLR caused occasional, brief pauses. Extreme CER and CDV increases still yielded high-quality images. Conclusions: Real-time echocardiographic acquisition, guidance, and transmission is feasible with the use of MPEG-2 and ATM with broadcast quality seen above 3 Mbps, even with severe network quality degradation. These techniques can be applied to telemedicine and used for planned echocardiography aboard the International Space Station.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine