Recent advances in Clostridioides difficile infection epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment in children

Larry K. Kociolek, Jonathan D. Crews, Hayden T. Schwenk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified Clostridioides difficile as an 'urgent' public health threat that requires 'urgent and aggressive action'. This call to action has led to new discoveries that have advanced C. difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, albeit predominantly in adults. In 2017, the Infectious Diseases Society of America and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America published clinical practice guidelines for both adults and children. At that time, recommendations in children were generally limited to relatively low-quality evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Since publication of this guidance, there have been many advancements in the understanding of CDI in children. These include better understanding of healthcare settings as uncommon sources of C. difficile acquisition in children; risk factors for recurrent and community-associated CDI; performance of diagnostic tests in children and strategies for optimizing their use; and a more rigorous evidence base for CDI treatment in children, including the first-ever randomized controlled trial of CDI treatment in children and the largest study of fecal microbiota transplantation in children. SUMMARY: This review highlights the most recent salient advancements in paediatric CDI knowledge and practice that supplement published clinical guidance provided prior to these advancements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-532
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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