Recent progress, challenges, and opportunities for wearable biochemical sensors for sweat analysis

Roozbeh Ghaffari, John A. Rogers, Tyler R. Ray*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations


Sweat is a promising, yet relatively unexplored biofluid containing biochemical information that offers broad insights into the underlying dynamic metabolic activity of the human body. The rich composition of electrolytes, metabolites, hormones, proteins, nucleic acids, micronutrients, and exogenous agents found in sweat dynamically vary in response to the state of health, stress, and diet. Emerging classes of skin-interfaced wearable sensors offer powerful capabilities for the real-time, continuous analysis of sweat produced by the eccrine glands in a manner suitable for use in athletics, consumer wellness, military, and healthcare industries. This perspective examines the rapid and continuous progress of wearable sweat sensors through the most advanced embodiments that address the fundamental challenges currently restricting widespread deployment. It concludes with a discussion of efforts to expand the overall utility of wearable sweat sensors and opportunities for commercialization, in which advances in biochemical sensor technologies will be critically important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number129447
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


  • Lab-on-chip
  • Microfluidics
  • Sensors
  • Sweat
  • Wearables

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Instrumentation
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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