Redox control of enzymatic functions: The electronics of life's circuitry

Marcelo G. Bonini*, Marcia E.L. Consolaro, Peter C. Hart, Mao Mao, Andre Luelsdorf Pimenta De Abreu, Alyssa M. Master

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

The field of redox biology has changed tremendously over the past 20 years. Formerly regarded as bi-products of the aerobic metabolism exclusively involved in tissue damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognized as active participants of cell signaling events in health and in disease. In this sense, ROS and the more recently defined reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are, just like hormones and second messengers, acting as fundamental orchestrators of cell signaling pathways. The chemical modification of enzymes by ROS and RNS (that result in functional enzymatic alterations) accounts for a considerable fraction of the transient and persistent perturbations imposed by variations in oxidant levels. Upregulation of ROS and RNS in response to stress is a common cellular response that foments adaptation to a variety of physiologic alterations (hypoxia, hyperoxia, starvation, and cytokine production). Frequently, these are beneficial and increase the organisms' resistance against subsequent acute stress (preconditioning). Differently, the sustained ROS/RNS-dependent rerouting of signaling produces irreversible alterations in cellular functioning, often leading to pathogenic events. Thus, the duration and reversibility of protein oxidations define whether complex organisms remain "electronically" healthy. Among the 20 essential amino acids, four are particularly susceptible to oxidation: cysteine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Here, we will critically review the mechanisms, implications, and repair systems involved in the redox modifications of these residues in proteins while analyzing well-characterized prototypic examples. Occasionally, we will discuss potential consequences of amino acid oxidation and speculate on the biologic necessity for such events in the context of adaptative redox signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-181
Number of pages15
JournalIUBMB Life
Volume66
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • hydrogen peroxide
  • oxidants
  • peroxynitrite
  • protein function
  • redox
  • redox signaling
  • sulfenic acid
  • thiol
  • ysteine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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    Bonini, M. G., Consolaro, M. E. L., Hart, P. C., Mao, M., De Abreu, A. L. P., & Master, A. M. (2014). Redox control of enzymatic functions: The electronics of life's circuitry. IUBMB Life, 66(3), 167-181. https://doi.org/10.1002/iub.1258