Background: Myeloablative conditioning regimens decrease the risk of relapse in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) for hematologic malignancies, but cause significant toxicities. Procedure: This prospective study evaluated the use of a reduced-toxicity, myeloablative regimen with dose-adjusted busulfan, fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin and 400 cGy of total body irradiation in 40 patients < 21 years of age undergoing HCT for high-risk leukemias. Busulfan pharmacokinetics were measured to target 4000 μmol*min/day in the first 30 patients; this was increased to 5000 μmol*min/day in the subsequent 10 in efforts to further decrease relapse risk. Results: Overall survival at two- and five-years post-HCT was 67% and 51%, respectively. Relapse occurred in 11 patients (28%) at a median of seven months and was the leading cause of death. Transplant-related mortality was 8% and 13% at 100 days and one-year post-HCT, respectively. Trends toward improved survival were seen in patients transplanted for myeloid disease using bone marrow as stem cell source who achieved a busulfan AUC > 4000 μmol*min/day with two-year relapse-free survival approaching 80%. Conclusions: This conditioning regimen is safe and effective in patients with high-risk leukemias, particularly myeloid disease. Larger studies are needed to compare its safety and efficacy to other myeloablative regimens in this population.
- pediatric leukemia
- reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen
- stem cell transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health