Reduction photolithography using microlens arrays: Applications in gray scale photolithography

Hongkai Wu, Teri W. Odom, George M. Whitesides*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


This paper describes the application of reduction photolithography, using arrays of microlenses and gray scale masks, to generate arrays of micropatterns having multilevel and curved features in photoresist. This technique can fabricate, in a single exposure, three-dimensional microstructures (e.g., nonspherical microlens arrays) over areas of ∼2 × 2 cm2. The simple optical configuration consisted of transparency film (having centimeter-sized features) as gray scale photomasks, an overhead projector as the illumination source, and arrays of microlenses as the size-reducing elements. Arrays of 40- and 100-μm lenses achieved a lateral size reduction of ∼103 and generated patterns of well-defined, multilevel structures; these structures may find use in applications such as diffractive optics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3267-3273
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 15 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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