Referencing and bias in social interaction

Lloyd E. Sandelands*, Bobby J. Calder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Examined the consequences of schematic referencing for social behavior. In Exp I, 23 female and 21 male undergraduates worked in pairs on a word association task. In the self-referencing condition, Ss were told that their partner would judge their personality; in the other-referencing condition, Ss were asked to judge their partner's personality. Results show biased recall of Ss' own behavior over another person's behavior in a dyadic interaction. Exp II employed an alternative, more realistic manipulation of self-referencing using situational cues. 16 pairs of undergraduate Ss performed the same word association task either in front of judges or by themselves. The biased recall effect was replicated. Moreover, corresponding biases in Ss' attributions about the quality of their performance were found. Results confirm that self-referencing cues can cause the sort of egocentric reactions that have been observed in previous studies in which members of an interaction remember more of their own contributions and attribute more responsibility for joint tasks to themselves. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)755-762
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1984


  • attributions for quality of performance, college students
  • dyadic tasks, biased recall of behavior &

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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