Recent studies have shown the ability to record high-γ signals (80–160 Hz) in electroencephalogram (EEG) from traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients who have had hemicraniectomies. However, extraction of the movement-related high-γ remains challenging due to a confounding bandwidth overlap with surface electromyogram (EMG) artifacts related to facial and head movements. In our previous work, we described an augmented independent component analysis (ICA) approach for removal of EMG artifacts from EEG, and referred to as EMG Reduction by Adding Sources of EMG (ERASE). Here, we tested this algorithm on EEG recorded from six TBI patients with hemicraniectomies while they performed a thumb flexion task. ERASE removed a mean of 52 ± 12% (mean ± S.E.M) (maximum 73%) of EMG artifacts. In contrast, conventional ICA removed a mean of 27 ± 19% (mean ± S.E.M) of EMG artifacts from EEG. In particular, high-γ synchronization was significantly improved in the contralateral hand motor cortex area within the hemicraniectomy site after ERASE was applied. A more sophisticated measure of high-γ complexity is the fractal dimension (FD). Here, we computed the FD of EEG high-γ on each channel. Relative FD of high-γ was defined as that the FD in move state was subtracted by FD in idle state. We found relative FD of high-γ over hemicraniectomy after applying ERASE were strongly correlated to the amplitude of finger flexion force. Results showed that significant correlation coefficients across the electrodes related to thumb flexion averaged ~0.76, while the coefficients across the homologous electrodes in non-hemicraniectomy areas were nearly 0. After conventional ICA, a correlation between relative FD of high-γ and force remained high in both hemicraniectomy areas (up to 0.86) and non-hemicraniectomy areas (up to 0.81). Across all subjects, an average of 83% of electrodes significantly correlated with force was located in the hemicraniectomy areas after applying ERASE. After conventional ICA, only 19% of electrodes with significant correlations were located in the hemicraniectomy. These results indicated that the new approach isolated electrophysiological features during finger motor activation while selectively removing confounding EMG artifacts. This approach removed EMG artifacts that can contaminate high-gamma activity recorded over the hemicraniectomy.
- EMG artifacts removal
ASJC Scopus subject areas