This article investigates teachers' mathematics practice in the context of recent national and state efforts to reform mathematics education. The authors develop a conceptual frame for examining reformers' proposals for mathematics education in classroom teaching in terms of the intersection of classroom tasks and discourse patterns with principled and procedural mathematical knowledge. Applying this framework to examine mathematics instruction in 25 classrooms, classrooms where teachers reported practices consistent with the reforms as well as familiarity and agreement with either national or state mathematics standards, the authors identify distinctly different patterns of practice in response to the reforms. Based on this analysis, the authors identify some dimensions of practice that appear more responsive to reform than others. In light of their analysis, the authors consider issues for policy analysis, policy research, and the design of policy.
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