Esquizofrenia refratária

Translated title of the contribution: Refractory schizophrenia

Helio Elkis*, Herbert Y. Meltzer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of the present paper is to review the various aspects of refractory schizophrenia regarding issues such as definitions, clinical aspects, psychobiological correlates, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options and predictors of treatment response. Method: Medline search as well as articles of the authors. Results and Conclusions: Refractory schizophrenia affects at least one third of patients with schizophrenia and the best evidence shows that is monotherapy with clozapine remains the mainstay for the treatment of such condition. Antipsychotic polipharmacy is not supported by current evidence and recent clinical trials have shown that clozapine augmentation with antipsychotics has no benefit over placebo.

Translated title of the contributionRefractory schizophrenia
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)S41-S47
JournalRevista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Oct 2007


  • Clinical protocols
  • Drug utilization review
  • Pharmacologic actions
  • Schizophrenia/therapy
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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