Background: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) procedures are performed frequently to evaluate gastrointestinal disease and symptoms. Aim: To determine regional practice variability of repeat EGDs in a national population. Methods: The study sample included US Veterans with an outpatient index EGD from 1/1/2008 to 12/2010. We determined risk of repeat endoscopy from 1/2008 to 10/1/2014. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between the odds of repeated EGD and patient demographics, ICD diagnostic codes, and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to obtain the adjusted odds ratio and predicted probabilities of repeat EGDs by region. Results: A total of 202,086 patients had an index endoscopy from 1/2008 to 12/2010. Unique patients with an index endoscopy were predominantly male (93.2%), white (72.8%), and on average 61 years. A total of 58,469 patients (28.9%) had one or more repeat EGDs, accounting for 103,253 repeat procedures through 10/2014. ICD-9-CM codes associated with increased risk of repeat procedures were Barrett’s esophagus (OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.7), dysphagia (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3), ulcer (OR 1.3, 95% CI 2.2–2.4), stricture (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.7–1.9), and esophageal varices (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.7–3.0). There was a significant difference in the probability of repeat EGD by VA region, with the Midwest region having the highest probability (31.2%) and Southeast the lowest probability (27.3%). This difference would account for 400 more EGD procedures per 10,000 Veterans, after adjusting for patient demographics and diagnosis codes. Conclusions: Regional practice variability accounts for a substantial volume of repeat EGD procedures, regardless of patient characteristics and associated diagnoses.
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