REI clinics and fellowship training—a national snapshot to improve access to reproductive care

Daniela Diego*, Lisa M. Shandley, Eve C. Feinberg, Marcelle I. Cedars, Eli Y. Adashi, Jennifer F. Kawwass, Heather S. Hipp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To analyze the geographic distribution of REI fellowships and clinics across the USA and to strategize ways to improve patient access to care. Methods: Cross-sectional study using population data obtained from publicly available United States Census Bureau, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), and National Resident Matching Program websites. Outcomes include the number of REI clinics, REI fellowship-trained physicians, and REI fellowship programs. Results: In 2020, there were 643 assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics reporting to SART and 1351 fellowship-trained REI physicians. Most clinics are located in the south (n = 209); however, the northeast has the highest density of REI clinics. Out of 301,316 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in the USA in 2020, northeastern states initiated the most cycles (n = 93,565), and Midwestern states initiated the fewest cycles (n = 50,000). The northeast has the most REI physicians per million women aged 20–44 years (42.4) while the Midwest has the lowest ratio (19.5). There are fewer REI physicians per million women aged 20–44 years in states with a lower proportion of patients with health insurance (r = 0.56, 95% confidence interval ([CI] 0.34–0.73) and in states with a lower average income per resident (r = 0.65, 95% CI 0.46–0.79). Most of the 49 accredited REI fellowship programs in the USA are in the northeast (n = 18), and there are fewest in the south (n = 10) and west (n = 10). Conclusion: Access to REI care has large geographic disparities from a clinic, physician, and training program perspective. Creative solutions are needed to remedy this problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2101-2108
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Access to care
  • Clinics
  • Fellowship training
  • Infertility
  • Reproductive endocrinology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Developmental Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'REI clinics and fellowship training—a national snapshot to improve access to reproductive care'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this