Relapsed/Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Beyond BTK Inhibitors

Madelyn Burkart*, Reem Karmali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) with historically poor outcomes. Virtually all patients will eventually experience refractory or relapsed (R/R) disease, with a virulent course of resistance and serial relapses, making treatment challenging. The available therapies for R/R MCL are not curative with conventional therapy, their goal being to palliate and prolong survival. A variety of agents approved for R/R MCL, including Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi), changed the treatment landscape of R/R MCL. In the pre-BTKi era, the median progression-free survival (PFS) in R/R disease was 4–9 months. With the introduction of ibrutinib, the median PFS improved to 13–14.6 months. Despite these impressive results, the duration of response is limited, and resistance to BTKi inevitably develops in a subset of patients. Outcomes after progression on BTKi are extremely poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of 6 to 10 months. Certain therapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, have shown promising results after BTKi failure. The preferred combination and sequencing of therapies beyond BTKi remain unestablished and are currently being investigated. In this review, we describe the current evidence for the available treatment of R/R MCL after progression on BTKi.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number376
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • BTK inhibitors
  • CAR-T cells
  • Mantel cell lymphoma
  • Relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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