The menopausal transition is a time of accelerating risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and promoting cardiovascular health during midlife is an important period of time to prevent CVD in women. The association of menopause with cardiovascular risk factors or subclinical atherosclerosis has not previously been evaluated in South Asian American women, a population with a disproportionately higher CVD burden compared with other race/ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of menopause with CVD risk factors and subclinical cardiometabolic disease markers. We studied women aged 40 to 84 years from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. The association of self-reported menopausal status with multiple demographic and clinical variables was assessed with linear and logistic regression adjusted for age and cardiovascular health behaviors. In a secondary (“age-restricted”) analysis, postmenopausal participants outside the age range of premenopausal participants were excluded. In the age-restricted sample, menopause was associated with a higher adjusted odds of hypertension (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.41), and higher systolic blood pressure (β = 6.34, 95% CI 0.82 to 11.87), and significantly higher subcutaneous fat area (β = 42.8, 95% CI 5.8 to 91.4). No significant associations between menopause and ectopic fat deposition, coronary artery calcium, or carotid intima-media thickness were observed. In South Asian American women in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, menopause was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and higher subcutaneous fat deposition. Menopausal status is an important factor to examine and address CVD risk factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine