Relation of raw and cooked vegetable consumption to blood pressur: The INTERMAP study

Q. Chan*, J. Stamler, I. J. Brown, M. L. Daviglus, L. Van, A. R. Dyer, L. M. Oude Griep, K. Miura, H. Ueshima, L. Zhao, J. K. Nicholson, E. Holmes, P. Elliott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Inverse associations have been reported of overall vegetable intake to blood pressure (BP); whether such relations prevail for both raw and cooked vegetables has not been examined. Here we report cross-sectional associations of vegetable intakes with BP for 2195 Americans ages 40-59 in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) using four standardized multi-pass 24-h dietary recalls and eight BP measurements. Relations to BP of raw and cooked vegetables consumption, and main individual constituents were assessed by multiple linear regression. Intakes of both total raw and total cooked vegetables considered separately were inversely related to BP in multivariate-adjusted models. Estimated average systolic BP differences associated with two s.d. differences in raw vegetable intake (68 g per 1000 kcal) and cooked vegetable intake (92 g per 1000 kcal) were -1.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.1, -0.8; P=0.001) and -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.5, -0.2; P=0.03) without body mass index (BMI) in the full model; -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.4, -0.2; P=0.02) and -0.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.0, 0.2; P=0.1) with additional adjustment for BMI. Among commonly consumed individual raw vegetables, tomatoes, carrots, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP. Among commonly eaten cooked vegetables, tomatoes, peas, celery, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-359
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of human hypertension
Volume28
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • cooked vegetables
  • population study
  • raw vegetables

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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