Relationship of dietary linoleic acid to blood pressure: The international study of macro-micronutrients and blood pressure study

Katsuyuki Miura*, Jeremiah Stamler, Hideaki Nakagawa, Paul Elliott, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Queenie Chan, Ian J. Brown, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Alan R. Dyer, Martha L. Daviglus, Hugo Kesteloot, Akira Okayama, J. David Curb, Beatriz L. Rodriguez, Patricia J. Elmer, Lyn M. Steffen, Claire Robertson, Liancheng Zhao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Findings from observational and interventional studies on the relationship of dietary linoleic acid, the main dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid, with blood pressure have been inconsistent. The International Study of Macro-Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is an international cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States. We report associations of linoleic acid intake of individuals with their blood pressure. Nutrient intake data were based on 4 in-depth multipass 24-hour dietary recalls per person and 2 timed 24-hour urine collections per person. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured 8 times at 4 visits. With several models to control for possible confounders (dietary or other), linear regression analyses showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship of linoleic acid intake (percent kilocalories) to systolic and diastolic blood pressure for all of the participants. When analyzed for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals (not on a special diet, not consuming nutritional supplements, no diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and not taking medication for high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes), the relationship was stronger. With adjustment for 14 variables, estimated systolic/diastolic blood pressure differences with 2-SD higher linoleic acid intake (3.77% kcal) were -1.42/-0.91 mm Hg (P<0.05 for both) for nonintervened participants. For total polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, blood pressure differences were -1.42/-0.98 mm Hg (P<0.05 for both) with 2 SD higher intake (4.04% kcal). Dietary linoleic acid intake may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)408-414
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2008


  • Blood pressure
  • Linoleic acid
  • Nutrition
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid
  • Population study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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