Relationships Between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC Study

The DCCT/EDIC research group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To describe the relationships between the cumulative incidences of long-term complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and assess whether observed associations are independent of age, duration of diabetes, and glycemic levels. METHODS Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), amputations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality were assessed in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/ Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study over ~30 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESULTS The cumulative incidence of complications ranged from 3% (amputations) to 37% (CSME). There were large differences in the cumulative incidence of PDR between participants with versus without prior CSME (66% vs. 15%), reduced eGFR (59% vs. 29%), and amputation (68% vs. 32%); reduced eGFR with or without prior PDR (25% vs. 9%), amputation (48% vs. 13%), and CVD (30% vs. 11%); CVD with or without prior reduced eGFR (37% vs. 14%) and amputation (50% vs. 16%); and mortality with or without prior reduced eGFR (22% vs. 9%), amputation (35% vs. 8%), and CVD (25% vs. 8%). Adjusted for age, duration of T1D, and mean updated HbA1c, the complications and associations with higher risk included PDR with CSME (hazard ratio [HR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.42, 2.50), reduced eGFR (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01, 1.97), and CVD (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.06, 1.92); CSME with higher risk of PDR (HR 3.94; 95% CI 3.18 4.89), reduced eGFR (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.10, 2.01), and CVD (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03, 1.78); reduced eGFR with higher risk of CVD (HR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44, 3.03), and death (HR 3.40; 95% CI 2.35, 4.92); amputation(s) with death (HR 2.97; 95% CI 1.70, 2.90); and CVD with reduced eGFR (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08, 2.34) and death (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.32, 2.90). CONCLUSIONS Long-term micro-and macrovascular complications and mortality are highly correlated. Age, diabetes duration, and glycemic levels do not completely explain these associations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-368
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


Dive into the research topics of 'Relationships Between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this