Relativistic chaos is coordinate invariant

Adilson E. Motter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


The noninvariance of Lyapunov exponents in general relativity has led to the conclusion that chaos depends on the choice of the space-time coordinates. Strikingly, we uncover the transformation laws of Lyapunov exponents under general space-time transformations and we find that chaos, as characterized by positive Lyapunov exponents, is coordinate invariant. As a result, the previous conclusion regarding the noninvariance of chaos in cosmology, a major claim about chaos in general relativity, necessarily involves the violation of hypotheses required for a proper definition of the Lyapunov exponents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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