The noninvariance of Lyapunov exponents in general relativity has led to the conclusion that chaos depends on the choice of the space-time coordinates. Strikingly, we uncover the transformation laws of Lyapunov exponents under general space-time transformations and we find that chaos, as characterized by positive Lyapunov exponents, is coordinate invariant. As a result, the previous conclusion regarding the noninvariance of chaos in cosmology, a major claim about chaos in general relativity, necessarily involves the violation of hypotheses required for a proper definition of the Lyapunov exponents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)