Relevance of proto-oncogenes as growth modulators in organogenesis of the mammalian embryonic kidney

Anil Kumar, Elisabeth I. Wallner, Frank A. Carone, Dante G. Scarpelli, Yashpal S. Kanwar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


During embryonic life, renal morphogenesis is characterized by a defined period of intense cellular activity, inductive-transformation of undifferentiated cells to polarized epithelial, in-growth of capillaries into an intricate parenchymal epithelial-mesenchymal mass, and finally the maturation into an organ with diverse structural and biological functions. It should be emphasized that the interactions between various proto-oncogenes, serving as receptors, and the growth factors and other morphogenetic modulators, e.g., ECM glycoproteins, are required for proper epithelial- mesenchymal interactions essential to the process of nephrogenesis. A 'balance' between the activities of these diverse group of macromolecules, whether essential or redundant, is needed to orchestrate the proper cell signals and proliferative responses to assure the progression of normal organogenesis (Pardee, 1987). Finally, in spite of the enormous wealth of data in the literature, the process of renal development is so complex that a clear picture has yet to emerge of the precisely coordinated sequential events that result in the formation of the mature functioning kidney.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)643-653
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Biology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1997


  • Extracellular matrix
  • Growth factors
  • Proto-oncogenes
  • Renal development
  • Suppressor genes
  • Transcription factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology


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