Remixing functionally graded structures: data-driven topology optimization with multiclass shape blending

Yu Chin Chan, Daicong Da, Liwei Wang, Wei Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


To create heterogeneous, multiscale structures with unprecedented functionalities, recent topology optimization approaches design either fully aperiodic systems or functionally graded structures, which compete in terms of design freedom and efficiency. We propose to inherit the advantages of both through a data-driven framework for multiclass functionally graded structures that mixes several families, i.e., classes, of microstructure topologies to create spatially-varying designs with guaranteed feasibility. The key is a new multiclass shape blending scheme that generates smoothly graded microstructures without requiring compatible classes or connectivity and feasibility constraints. Moreover, it transforms the microscale problem into an efficient, low-dimensional one without confining the design to predefined shapes. Compliance and shape matching examples using common truss geometries and diversity-based freeform topologies demonstrate the versatility of our framework, while studies on the effect of the number and diversity of classes illustrate the effectiveness. The generality of the proposed methods supports future extensions beyond the linear applications presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number135
JournalStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Data-driven design
  • Functionally graded structure
  • Multiclass
  • Multiscale
  • Shape interpolation
  • Topology optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Optimization
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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