Remote control of muscle-driven miniature robots with battery-free wireless optoelectronics

Yongdeok Kim, Yiyuan Yang, Xiaotian Zhang, Zhengwei Li, Abraham Vázquez-Guardado, Insu Park, Jiaojiao Wang, Andrew I. Efimov, Zhi Dou, Yue Wang, Junehu Park, Haiwen Luan, Xinchen Ni, Yun Seong Kim, Janice Baek, Joshua Jaehyung Park, Zhaoqian Xie, Hangbo Zhao, Mattia Gazzola*, John A. Rogers*Rashid Bashir*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Bioengineering approaches that combine living cellular components with three-dimensional scaffolds to generate motion can be used to develop a new generation of miniature robots. Integrating on-board electronics and remote control in these biological machines will enable various applications across engineering, biology, and medicine. Here, we present hybrid bioelectronic robots equipped with battery-free and microinorganic lightemitting diodes for wireless control and real-time communication. Centimeter-scale walking robots were computationally designed and optimized to host on-board optoelectronics with independent stimulation of multiple optogenetic skeletal muscles, achieving remote command of walking, turning, plowing, and transport functions both at individual and collective levels. This work paves the way toward a class of biohybrid machines able to combine biological actuation and sensing with on-board computing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereadd1053
JournalScience Robotics
Issue number74
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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