Repetition and dual coding in procedural multimedia presentations

Tad T. Brunyé*, Holly A. Taylor, David N. Rapp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Students learned toy assembly sequences presented in picture, text, or one of three multimedia formats, and completed order verification, recall, and object assembly tasks. Experiment 1 compared repetitious (i.e. dual format presentations each conveying similar information) with complementary (i.e. dual format presentations each conveying different information) multimedia presentations. Repetitious presentations appear to provide learning benefits as a function of their inherent redundancy; complementary presentations provide benefits as a result of users actively integrating picture and text elements into a cohesive mental model. Experiment 2 compared repetitious with interleaved (i.e. assembly steps presented in alternating picture-text formats) multimedia presentations. Again, multimedia presentations led to overall learning advantages relative to single-format presentations, with an emphasis on both repetition and integrative working memory processes. Object assembly performance consistently demonstrated the utility of picture learning, with or without accompanying text. Results are considered relative to classic and contemporary learning theory, and inform educational design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)877-895
Number of pages19
JournalApplied Cognitive Psychology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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