Representing internal bracing systems in 3-D models of deep excavations

J. Tanner Blackburn*, Richard J Finno

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


Internal bracing in conventional 2-d finite element models of deep excavations is modeled by averaging the stiffness of the internal braces over their spacing and considering the bending stiffness of the wall about its neutral axis in the plane of bending. The effects of the waler connecting the brace and wall are usually ignored. When making a 3-d simulation, each internal brace can be modeled individually. In this case, when evaluating the 3-d distribution of ground movements and structural responses, the effects of the waler should be considered. However, it is not feasible to explicitly model each waler and all the connections between the brace, waler and wall. This paper summarizes the considerations related to such simulations, presents the results of parametric studies that show the effects of sheeting flexibility parallel to the wall and compares results of 3-d finite element simulations to responses at the Ford Design Center excavation in Evanston, IL. Copyright ASCE 2006.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGeoCongress 2006
Subtitle of host publicationGeotechnical Engineering in the Information Technology Age
Number of pages1
StatePublished - Dec 28 2006
EventGeoCongress 2006 - Atlanta, GA, United States
Duration: Feb 26 2006Mar 1 2006

Publication series

NameGeoCongress 2006: Geotechnical Engineering in the Information Technology Age


OtherGeoCongress 2006
CountryUnited States
CityAtlanta, GA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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