Requirement of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandins for human prostate cancer cell invasion

Kasem Nithipatikom*, Marilyn A. Isbell, Paul F. Lindholm, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Sushma Kaul, William B. Campell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The PC-3 Low Invasive cells and the PC-3 High Invasive cells were used to investigate the correlation of the COX-2 expression and its arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandins, with their invasiveness through Matrigel® using a Boyden chamber assay. The COX-2 expression in PC-3 High Invasive cells was approximately 3-fold higher than in PC-3 Low Invasive cells while the COX-1 expression was similar in both cell sublines. When incubated with arachidonic acid, PGE2 was the major prostaglandin produced by these cells. PC-3 High Invasive cells produced PGE2 approximately 2.5-fold higher than PC-3 Low Invasive cells. PGD2 was the second most abundant prostaglandin produced by these cells. Both indomethacin (a nonspecific COX inhibitor) and NS-398 (a specific COX-2 inhibitor) inhibited the production of prostaglandins and the cell invasion. PGE2 alone did not induce the cell invasion of PC-3 Low Invasive cells. However, PGE2 reversed the inhibition of cell invasion by NS-398 and enhanced the cell invasion of the PC-3 High Invasive cells. In contrast, PGD2 slightly inhibited the cell invasion. These results suggest that in the PC-3 Low Invasive cells, COX-2-derived PGE2 may not be sufficient to induce cell invasion while in the PC-3 High Invasive cells, PGE2 may be sufficient to act as an enhancer for the cell invasion. Further, PGD2 may represent a weak inhibitor and counteracts the effect of PGE2 in the cell invasion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-601
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Experimental Metastasis
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2002


  • Cell invasion
  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Prostaglandins
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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