Residual sodium dodecyl sulfate in decellularized muscle matrices leads to fibroblast activation in vitro and foreign body response in vivo

Emily E. Friedrich*, Steven T. Lanier, Solmaz Niknam-Bienia, Gabriel A. Arenas, Divya Rajendran, Jason A. Wertheim, Robert D. Galiano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are commonly used to extract cells from tissues in a process called “decellularization”. Residual SDS is difficult to completely remove and may lead to an undesirable host response towards an implanted biomaterial. In this study, we developed a modification for SDS cell extraction from muscle equally efficient to previous methods but leading to significantly less residual SDS remnants in the matrices. Muscle-derived matrices were prepared via 2 SDS-based decellularization methods, which led to removal of either 81.4% or 98.4% of the SDS. In vitro, matrices were seeded with thp1 macrophages and primary human foreskin fibroblasts. By Day 2, both matrices demonstrated similar macrophage polarization; however, fibroblasts cultured on matrices with greater residual SDS expressed higher levels of mRNA associated with fibroblast activation: α-smooth muscle actin and connective tissue growth factor. In vivo, Collagen I gels spiked with increasing concentrations of SDS displayed a corresponding decrease in cell infiltration when implanted subcutaneously in rats after 4 days. Finally, as a model for muscle regeneration, matrices produced by each method were implanted in rat latissimus dorsi defects. At POD 30 greater levels of IL-1β mRNA were present in defects treated with matrices containing higher levels of SDS, indicating a more severe inflammatory response. Although matrices containing higher levels of residual SDS became encapsulated by POD 30 and showed evidence of a foreign body response, matrices with the lower levels of SDS integrated into the defect area with lower levels of inflammatory and fibrosis-related gene expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1704-e1715
JournalJournal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018


  • biomaterials
  • decellularization
  • fibrosis
  • foreign body response
  • host response
  • muscle
  • sodium dodecyl sulfate
  • wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials


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