X-Ray microscopes are able to image thick, wet biological specimens at 50 mm or better resolution, to perform elemental analysis at 0.1-10 μm resolution with as high as ppm sensitivity, and to analyze surface composition at 0.1-1 μm resolution. We concentrate here on the use of soft X-rays, where the wavelength is typically >1 nm, although mention of some techniques and results at shorter wavelength is also made. We discuss the physical priciples behind X-ray microscopes, the types of optical systems used and their achievable resolution. resolution limitations imposed by radiation damage, and recent application of X-ray microscopes to the imaging of biological, materials science, geological, and other specimens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics