Resolution in soft X-ray microscopes

C. Jacobsen*, J. Kirz, S. Williams

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


X-Ray microscopes are able to image thick, wet biological specimens at 50 mm or better resolution, to perform elemental analysis at 0.1-10 μm resolution with as high as ppm sensitivity, and to analyze surface composition at 0.1-1 μm resolution. We concentrate here on the use of soft X-rays, where the wavelength is typically >1 nm, although mention of some techniques and results at shorter wavelength is also made. We discuss the physical priciples behind X-ray microscopes, the types of optical systems used and their achievable resolution. resolution limitations imposed by radiation damage, and recent application of X-ray microscopes to the imaging of biological, materials science, geological, and other specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-79
Number of pages25
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Nov 2 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation

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