Objective: Management of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair can be problematic. This study reports our experience with a relatively novel strategy to treat this complication, transcaval coil embolization (TCCE) of the aneurysm sac. Methods: We reviewed 29 consecutive patients undergoing TCCE from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, operative details, and outcomes were assessed. Results: Since 2006, 29 TCCEs have been performed at our institution in 26 patients for sac expansion from type II endoleaks. Patients were male (83%) and former or current smokers (88%), with an average age of 78 ± 7.1 years. TCCE was performed a mean of 4.2 ± 4 years after initial endovascular aneurysm repair. Endoleaks resulted in a mean sac growth of 1.2 ± 1 cm in diameter and 37% ± 32% by volume. Forty-six percent had prior procedures (5 translumbar, 3 transarterial, 3 transcaval, 1 aortic cuff, and 1 iliac limb extension). Two patients had no flow identified in the aneurysm sac after puncture was successful, and one was found to have a hygroma rather than arterial flow. An additional two patients had ultimate embolization from sac access between the endograft iliac limb and arterial wall after transcaval puncture failed, for a 90% procedural success (83% for transcaval technical success). Mean fluoroscopy time was 27 ± 13 minutes with 29 ± 21 mL of contrast material used and a median of 10 coils per case. Additional adjuncts included thrombin injection (17%), intravascular ultrasound (14%), sac pressure measurements (28%), and on-table integrated computed tomography (17%). Median length of stay was 1 day (range, 0-5 days). There were no procedural adverse events. Reintervention was required in five cases (three repeated TCCEs, two graft relinings). One-year freedom from reintervention was 95%. At a mean 16.5 months of follow-up, 70% experienced no further endoleak and had stable or decreasing sac diameters. There have been no ruptures during follow-up. Conclusions: In this series, TCCE for treatment of aneurysm enlargement due to type II endoleaks was safe and relatively effective despite prior failed interventions in nearly half of the cases. TCCE is a useful alternative in cases in which the anatomy makes other approaches difficult or impossible.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine