Results with the Freestyle Porcine Aortic Root for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction in Children

Kirk R. Kanter*, Derek A. Fyfe, William T. Mahle, Joseph M. Forbess, Paul M. Kirshbom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Background. The ideal choice for valved reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in children is undetermined. This study explores the Freestyle porcine aortic root for these patients. Methods. From January 1998 to December 2002, 56 patients ages 1.6 to 29.9 years old (mean 11. 8 years old) underwent RVOT reconstruction using a Freestyle porcine aortic root. The patients averaged 1.9 prior operations (range 0 to 5) for tetralogy of Fallot ± pulmonary atresia (28 patients), critical pulmonary stenosis (10 patients), Ross procedure (5 patients), pulmonary atresia/ intact ventricular septum (4 patients), complete atrioventricular septal defect ± tetralogy of Fallot (4 patients), and others (5 patients). At time of RVOT reconstruction, 42 patients (75%) had additional procedures including the following: tricuspid or mitral repair (24 patients), pulmonary arterioplasty ± Glenn (12 patients), ventricular septal defect closure (5 patients), aortic valve replacement (3 patients), placement of a cardioverter/ defibrillator or pacemaker (3 patients), and others (8 patients). Results. One patient developed mediastinitis; another was treated for Candida endocarditis (his excised homograft unexpectedly grew Candida). All patients are well on follow-up from 2 to 60 months (mean 30 ± 20 months) with no deaths. The patient with endocarditis underwent conduit replacement for recurrent pulmonary stenosis 3.5 years postoperatively. Echocardiography revealed mild or no pulmonary insufficiency in 93%. The calculated mean peak systolic RVOT gradient by echocardiography was 19.7 ± 15.4 mm Hg. Conclusions. These data demonstrate excellent results with the Freestyle bioprosthesis for RVOT reconstruction in children. This valve may serve as a readily available alternative to homograft valves in RVOT reconstruction, particularly since early insufficiency seems to be less problematic. Questions of long-term durability and significance of echocardiographic stenosis remain unanswered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1889-1895
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Surgery


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