Resuscitation speed affects brain injury in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury and shock

Martin Sillesen, Guang Jin, Pär I. Johansson, Hasan B. Alam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Optimal fluid resuscitation strategy following combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) remain controversial and the effect of resuscitation infusion speed on outcome is not well known. We have previously reported that bolus infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) protects the brain compared with bolus infusion of 0.9% normal saline (NS). We now hypothesize reducing resuscitation infusion speed through a stepwise infusion speed increment protocol using either FFP or NS would provide neuroprotection compared with a high speed resuscitation protocol. Methods: 23 Yorkshire swine underwent a protocol of computer controlled TBI and 40% hemorrhage. Animals were left in shock (mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg) for two hours prior to resuscitation with bolus FFP (n = 5, 50 ml/min) or stepwise infusion speed increment FFP (n = 6), bolus NS (n = 5, 165 ml/min) or stepwise infusion speed increment NS (n = 7). Hemodynamic variables over a 6-hour observation phase were recorded. Following euthanasia, brains were harvested and lesion size as well as brain swelling was measured. Results: Bolus FFP resuscitation resulted in greater brain swelling (22.36 ± 1.03% vs. 15.58 ± 2.52%, p = 0.04), but similar lesion size compared with stepwise resuscitation. This was associated with a lower cardiac output (CO: 4.81 ± 1.50 l/min vs. 5.45 ± 1.14 l/min, p = 0.03). In the NS groups, bolus infusion resulted in both increased brain swelling (37.24 ± 1.63% vs. 26.74 ± 1.33%, p = 0.05) as well as lesion size (3285.44 ± 130.81 mm 3 vs. 2509.41 ± 297.44 mm 3 , p = 0.04). This was also associated with decreased cardiac output (NS: 4.37 ± 0.12 l/min vs. 6.35 ± 0.10 l/min, p < 0.01).Conclusions: In this clinically relevant model of combined TBI and HS, stepwise resuscitation protected the brain compared with bolus resuscitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number46
JournalScandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 14 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Fresh frozen plasma
  • Hemorrhagic shock resuscitation
  • Swine
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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