All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and other retinoids modulate cell growth and differentiation, generally favoring terminal cell differentiation and inhibiting carcinogenesis. Retinoids are also reported to inhibit angiogenesis and endothelial cell migration, actions that are also anti-carcinogenic. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine secreted by many tumors. It renders microvessels hyperpermeable to plasma and stimulates endothelial cell migration and division. To investigate further the mechanisms by which RA inhibits angiogenesis, we evaluated the effects of RA on VPF/VEGF-induced angiogenesis and microvascular permeability. RA selectively inhibited the angiogenic response induced by VPF/VEGF, but not that induced by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), in the CAM assay. RA and two of its isomers also inhibited the vascular permeabilizing effect of VPF/VEGF but not that induced by histamine. The vascular permeabilization induced by VPF/VEGF and blocked by RA takes place within 1-15 min, too short a time frame for RA to act by modulating transcription through classic retinoid receptors. RA also inhibited VPF/VEGF-induced phosphorylation of PLC-γ and synthesis of cGMP but actually increased VPF/VEGF binding to cultured endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that RA selectively blocks VPF/VEGF-induced microvascular permeability and angiogenesis and also identify VPF/VEGF as a major target of RA action. The selectivity of RA's action suggests that other, RA-independent pathways must exist for the angiogenesis induced by FGF-2 and the vascular permeabilizing effect of histamine. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
- CAM assay
- Miles assay
- Retinoic acid (RA)
- Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Cell Biology