Retinoic acid syndrome: Manifestations, pathogenesis, and treatment

Richard S. Larson*, Martin S. Tallman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent differentiation agent that is effective therapy in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Although ATRA is generally well tolerated, some patients develop retinoic acid syndrome. This syndrome is manifested by unexplained fever, weight gain, respiratory distress, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, pleural and pericardial effusion, episodic hypotension, and acute renal failure. However, if identified early enough, effective therapy can be administered. This chapter discusses the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of retinoic acid syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-461
Number of pages9
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2003


  • Acute promyelocytic leukaemia
  • Retinoic acid syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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