Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) report persistent symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. This review outlines the evidence for surgical and endoscopic therapies for the treatment of PPI nonresponsive GERD. A literature search for GERD therapies from 2005 to 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified 2928 unique citations. Of those, 45 unique articles specific to surgical and endoscopic therapies for PPI nonresponsive GERD were reviewed. Laparoscopic fundoplication (n = 19) provides symptomatic and physiologic relief out to 10 years, though efficacy wanes with time. Magnetic sphincter augmentation (n = 6) and transoral incisionless fundoplication (n = 9) improve symptoms in PPI nonresponders and may offer fewer side effects than fundoplication, though long-term follow-up is lacking. Radiofrequency energy delivery (n = 8) has insufficient evidence for routine use in treating PPI nonresponsive GERD. Electrical stimulator implantation (n = 1) and endoscopic mucosal surgery (n = 2) are newer therapies under evaluation for the treatment of GERD. Laparoscopic fundoplication remains the most proven therapeutic approach. Newer antireflux procedures such as magnetic sphincter augmentation and transoral incisionless fundoplication offer alternatives with varying degrees of success, durability, and side effect profiles that may better suit individual patients. Larger head-to-head comparison trials are needed to better characterize the difference in symptom response and side effect profiles.
- Lower esophageal sphincter
- Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas