Collagenases and gelatinases regulate many physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various disease states, such as osteoarthritis, renal fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. These enzymes belong to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family and are regulated by a number of factors, including sex hormones. Estrogen, relaxin, and progesterone can alter the balance between tissue degradation and repair by modulating MMPs, leading to gender disparities in many MMP-related disease states. In these diseases, MMPs initiate collagen degradation at the nanoscale when they cleave and denature collagen molecules. However, the net effect on tissue is generally observed at the macroscale. To understand how nanoscale events lead to macroscale changes, we must examine the intermediate scales. In this article, we review the literature that examines the effects of estrogen, relaxin, and progesterone on MMP production and activity, connecting the nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale details to relevant disease states.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||28|
|Journal||Critical reviews in biomedical engineering|
|State||Published - 2015|
- Tissue remodeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering