Rewarming rate during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with release of glial fibrillary acidic protein

Daijiro Hori, Allen D. Everett, Jennifer K. Lee, Masahiro Ono, Charles H. Brown, Ashish S. Shah, Kaushik Mandal, Joel E. Price, Laeben C. Lester, Charles W. Hogue*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Background Rewarming from hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may compromise cerebral oxygen balance, potentially resulting in cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether CPB rewarming rate is associated with cerebral ischemia assessed by the release of the brain injury biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Methods Blood samples were collected from 152 patients after anesthesia induction and after CPB for the measurement of plasma GFAP levels. Nasal temperatures were recorded every 15 min. A multivariate estimation model for postoperative plasma GFAP level was determined that included the baseline GFAP levels, rewarming rate, CPB duration, and patient age. Results The mean rewarming rate during CPB was 0.21° ± 0.11°C/min; the maximal temperature was 36.5° ± 1.0°C (range, 33.1°C to 38.0°C). Plasma GFAP levels increased after compared with before CPB (median, 0.022 ng/mL versus 0.035 ng/mL; p < 0.001). Rewarming rate (p = 0.001), but not maximal temperature (p = 0.77), was associated with higher plasma GFAP levels after CPB. In the adjusted estimation model, rewarming rate was positively associated with postoperative plasma log GFAP levels (coefficient, 0.261; 95% confidence intervals, 0.132 to 0.390; p < 0.001). Six patients (3.9%) experienced a postoperative stroke. Rewarming rate was higher (0.3° ± 0.09°C/min versus 0.2° ± 0.11°C/min; p = 0.049) in the patients with stroke compared with those without a stroke. Conclusions Rewarming rate during CPB was correlated with evidence of brain cellular injury documented with plasma GFAP levels. Modifying current practices of patient rewarming might provide a strategy to reduce the frequency of neurologic complications after cardiac surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1353-1358
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Surgery


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