Background: To our knowledge, late electrophysiologic outcomes after the Ross procedure have not been described. The purpose of this study was to assess rhythm and conduction disturbances at midterm follow-up after the Ross procedure. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of Ross procedure survivors (January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2005) followed at our institution was performed, including resting and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (Holter monitoring). Rhythm and conduction disturbances were described, and predictors of arrhythmia were identified. Results: Of 64 eligible patients, 47 (71%) participated. Median age at surgery was 8.7 years (age range, 34 days to 34 years). Twenty-five patients (53%) had isolated aortic valve disease and 22 (47%) had complex left-sided heart disease. At median follow-up of 8.9 years (range, 2.6-11.1 years), 46 patients (98%) exhibited sinus rhythm. Sinus node dysfunction (SND), defined as a pause of 2 seconds or longer or bradycardia for age, was present in 7 patients (15%). Complete heart block requiring a pacemaker occurred in 2 patients (4%). Ventricular tachycardia (VT) was present in 7 patients (15%), including nonsustained VT in 5 patients on Holter monitoring, and sustained VT in 2 patients requiring defibrillator placement. In multivariate analysis, concurrent arch repair at the time of the Ross operation (p = 0.04), longer cross-clamp time at the time of Ross operation (p = 0.04), and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction on follow-up echocardiogram (p = 0.03) were associated with SND. Longer cross-clamp time (p = 0.03) was also associated with VT, along with older age at surgery (p = 0.06 for trend). Conclusions: At midterm follow-up after the Ross procedure, rhythm and conduction disturbances occur in one third of patients, including SND in 15%, atrioventricular block in 4%, and VT in 15%. Routine surveillance for late arrhythmias after the Ross procedure is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine