Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: a Scoping Review

Jeremy D. Kidd*, Kasey B. Jackman, Margaret Wolff, Cindy B. Veldhuis, Tonda L. Hughes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Alcohol and drug use are common among youth. Rates are especially high among sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender). We conducted a scoping review of research on risk and protective factors for substance use among SGMY published between 2013 and 2017. Recent Findings: Ninety-seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most focused on individual-level minority stress risk factors, particularly stigma. Fewer studies addressed protective factors such as social support or affirming policies, and few focused on gender minority youth (GMY). We identified important, yet understudied differences by race/ethnicity, sex assigned at birth, and sexual orientation. Summary: Findings highlight growing interest in this topic as well as methodological/topical gaps in the literature. Research is needed to examine SGMY substance use in nationally representative samples; expand information about GMY; investigate racial/ethnic and sex/gender differences; improve measurement; and increase translation of findings to support prevention and treatment interventions for this at-risk population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-173
Number of pages16
JournalCurrent Addiction Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018


  • Alcohol
  • Drug
  • Gender minority
  • Sexual minority
  • Substance use
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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