Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤1 antibiotic versus ≥2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; P =.047) and exposure to amikacin (OR, 13.81; P <.001), levofloxacin (OR, 2.05; P =.005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR, 3.42; P =.009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (hazard ratio [HR], 5.52), immunocompromised state (HR, 3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR, 2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR, 1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03) predicted mortality; and, at 30 days, age (HR, 1.02 per 1-year increase), liver disease (HR, 3.34), immunocompromised state (HR, 2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR, 1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusion HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality.
- Antibiotic resistance
- Gram-negative bacteria
- Health care-associated infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases