Risk factors for hip and vertebral fractures in chronic kidney disease: the CRIC study

Simon Hsu, Nisha Bansal, Michelle Denburg, Charles Ginsberg, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Tamara Isakova, Joachim H. Ix, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Myles S Wolf, Bryan R. Kestenbaum, Ian H. de Boer, Leila R. Zelnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Fracture risk is high in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and underlying pathophysiology and risk factors may differ from the general population. In a cohort study of 3939 participants in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC), we used Cox regression to test associations of putative risk factors with the composite of first hip or vertebral fracture assessed using hospital discharge codes. Mean age was 58 years, 45% were female, 42% were Black, and 13% were Hispanic. There were 82 hip and 24 vertebral fractures over a mean (SD) 11.1 (4.8) years (2.4 events per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 2.0, 2.9]). Measured at baseline, diabetes, lower body mass index (BMI), steroid use, proteinuria, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) were each associated with fracture risk after adjusting for covariates. Lower time-updated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was associated with fractures (HR 1.20 per 10 mL/min/1.73m2 lower eGFR; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38) as were lower time-updated serum calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. Among time-updated categories of kidney function, hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident fracture were 4.53 (1.77, 11.60) for kidney failure treated with dialysis and 2.48 (0.86, 7.14) for post-kidney transplantation, compared with eGFR ≥60. Proton pump inhibitor use, dietary calcium intake, measures of vitamin D status, serum phosphate, urine calcium and phosphate, and plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 were not associated with fracture risk. In conclusion, lower eGFR in CKD is associated with higher fracture risk, which was highest in kidney failure. Diabetes, lower BMI, steroid use, proteinuria, higher serum concentrations of PTH, and lower calcium and bicarbonate concentrations were associated with fractures and may be modifiable risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-442
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • PTH/Vit D/FGF23
  • biochemical markers of bone turnover
  • fracture prevention
  • fracture risk assessment
  • osteoporosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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