Risk factors for urolithiasis in gastrostomy tube fed children: A case-control study

Emilie K. Johnson*, Jenifer R. Lightdale, Caleb P. Nelson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients who are fed primarily via gastrostomy tube (G-tube) may be at increased risk for urolithiasis, but no studies have specifically examined risk factors for stones in this population. We aimed to determine clinical differences between G-tube fed (GTF) patients with and without stones, in hopes of identifying modifiable factors associated with increased risk of urolithiasis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study, matching GTF patients with urolithiasis (cases) to GTF children without urolithiasis (controls) based on age (±1 year) and gender. Bivariate comparisons and matched logistic regression modeling were used to determine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between relevant clinical factors and urolithiasis. RESULTS: Forty-one cases and 80 matched controls (mean age 12.0 ± 6.5 years) were included. On bivariate analysis, factors associated with stone formation included: white race, urinary tract infection (UTI), topiramate administration, vitamin D use, malabsorption, dehydration, 2-year duration with G-tube, and whether goal free water intake was documented in the patient chart. On regression analysis, the following factors remained significant: topiramate administration (odds ratio [OR]: 6.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76-24.59]), UTI (OR: 7.70 [95% CI: 1.59-37.17]), and <2 years with a G-tube (OR: 8.78 [95% CI: 1.27-52.50]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a preliminary risk profile for the development of urolithiasis in GTF children. Important associations identified include UTI, topiramate administration, and shorter G-tube duration, which may reflect subclinical chronic dehydration. Of these, topiramate use represents the most promising target for risk reduction. Pediatrics 2013;132:e167-e174.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e167-e174
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2013


  • Case-control study
  • Complications
  • Feeding difficulties
  • G-tube
  • Gastrostomy
  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube
  • Risk factors
  • Urolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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