Background: It is known that malignant melanoma (MM) survivors are at increased risk of future primary MM. However, the risk for noncutaneous second primary malignancies (SPMs) is not as well-understood. Methods: An observational study utilizing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was performed, assessing data from patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous MM to measure overall, as well as specific, tumor type and risk of SPM. Results: Of the 132,438 patients recruited in the study population (mean age 55.5 years; 54% male), 23,794 SPMs were observed (O) (18% of patients at a mean age of 68.8 years), while 17,923 SPMs were expected (E) to occur (O : E 1.33, 95% CI 1.31–1.34). Excluding cutaneous MM occurring as a new primary malignancy, there was a significantly increased risk for SPMs among cutaneous MM survivors for each of the following tumor types: eye and orbit melanoma, tracheal, thyroid, salivary gland, retroperitoneum, small intestine, kidney, lymphoid and hematopoietic system, lymphoma overall, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphocytic leukemia overall, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, male genital system (including prostate), and breast. Certain gender-specific trends for SPMs were also detected. Conclusions: Patients with primary cutaneous MM are at increased risk for primary noncutaneous MM as well as noncutaneous SPMs that include numerous tumor types. Enhanced oncologic surveillance for a variety of tumor types in melanoma survivors is warranted.
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