Ritonavir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected infants younger than 24 months of age

Ellen Gould Chadwick*, John H. Rodman, Paula Britto, Christine Powell, Paul Palumbo, Katherine Luzuriaga, Michael Hughes, Elaine J. Abrams, Patricia M. Flynn, William Borkowsky, Ram Yogev

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Few data are available regarding clinical outcomes or dosing requirements for the protease inhibitor ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children younger than under 24 months of age. Methods: This prospective, multicenter phase I/II open label treatment trial used ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine to treat protease inhibitor-naive, HIV-infected infants between the ages of 4 weeks and 24 months. Two sequential dosing cohorts were treated with 350 or 450 mg/m2 ritonavir every 12 hours; this report includes results of pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability and efficacy through 104 weeks of follow-up of all subjects. Results: Fifty HIV-infected children were treated. By week 16, 36 had achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (72% intent-to-treat, 84% as-treated analysis); by week 104, 18 maintained durable viral suppression (36% intent-to-treat, 46% as-treated). Poor medication adherence by caregiver report contributed to virologic failure. Few subjects experienced treatment-limiting toxicity: emesis or ritonavir refusal in 6 (12%); and severe but reversible anemia or elevated serum hepatic transaminases in 1 (4%) each. Apparent oral clearance was higher and the median predose concentrations were substantially lower than those found in adults. Median z scores for weight and height for age/gender were below normal at baseline but improved by week 104. Conclusions: A combination regimen of ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine was generally safe and produced sustained viral suppression in more than one-third of infants who initiated therapy before 2 years of age. Improved palatability of liquid preparations of protease inhibitors, supporting infrastructure and behavioral approaches to improve medication adherence with antiretrovirals will likely be necessary to further improve efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-800
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume24
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2005

Keywords

  • Infants
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Ritonavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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