Advances in computer and robotic technology are transforming cardiac surgery, overcoming the limitations of conventional endoscopic tools. Using minimal access through 5 millimeter ports, computer-enhanced instruments provide superhuman dexterity through tremor filtration and motion scaling, and are capable of precise manipulation in confined body cavities. Using these technologies, endoscopic beating heart coronary bypass surgery as well as complex mitral valve repairs have been performed in the last few years. However, the current world experience with robotic heart surgery is mostly anecdotal, retrospective, and noncontrolled. Results of rigorous prospective randomized studies in the United States under Food and Drug Administration approved protocols, are awaited. The use of robotic telemanipulation technology for heart surgery is restricted in the United States to patients enrolled in clinical studies in a few elite centers. Further refinement in robotic and image-guided technology for cardiac surgery may further expand the use of computer enhanced instrumentation in the near future.
- Minimally invasive cardiac surgery
- Valve surgery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine