Objective To report a case of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) during pregnancy and review the existing literature on the topic. Methods A 35-year-old asymptomatic pregnant woman at 20 weeks gestation was found to have a large mass in the right kidney during routine anatomic ultrasound for fetal assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 7.5 cm right upper-pole solid-enhancing renal mass, concerning for malignancy, without evidence of local extension or metastases. Ultimately, after shared decision-making between the patient and her physicians, the patient elected to proceed with RPN. A multidisciplinary approach was undertaken perioperatively. Notably, coordination between high-risk maternal fetal medicine, obstetrics, anesthesia, and urology were paramount to this endeavor. Results The patient was seen and assessed by obstetrics and maternal fetal medicine preoperatively, and fetal heart tones were monitored immediately before and after surgery and every day of her hospitalization. Total operating time was 253 minutes with an estimated blood loss of 120 cc. Warm ischemia time was 36 minutes, and 70% of normal renal parenchyma was preserved. The patient's creatinine peaked at 0.81 mg/dL, and her hemoglobin nadir reached 9.6 g/dL. She was discharged on postoperative day 6 in excellent condition. Final pathology demonstrated a 6.6 cm chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with negative margins. Conclusion RPN during pregnancy is feasible but requires perioperative planning, multidisciplinary coordination, and careful operative decision-making to ensure optimal safety of mother and fetus. Herein, we report the first described case of RPN for renal neoplasm during pregnancy.
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