THE nuclear receptor superfamily includes receptors for steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone and vitamin D, as well as many related proteins. An important feature of the action of the lipophilic hormones and vitamins is that the maintenance of homeostatic function requires both intrinsic positive and negative regulation. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that identifies the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its homologue P300 (refs 6, 7) as cofactors mediating nuclear-receptor-activated gene transcription. The role of CBP/P300 in the transcriptional response to cyclic AMP, phorbol esters, serum, the lipophilic hormones and as the target of the E1A oncoprotein suggests they may serve as integrators of extracellular and intracellular signalling pathways.
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