Role of Gender and Race in Patient-Reported Outcomes and Satisfaction

Natalie Kozlov, Honorio T. Benzon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The role of gender, race, and socioeconomic status in outcomes and satisfaction are reflected in patient-reported outcomes using measurement tools representing outcome domains. These domains include pain relief, physical and emotional functioning, adverse events, participant disposition, and patient satisfaction. Measurement tools exist for each of the outcomes in both acute and chronic pain. Patients with lower economic status have greater difficulty accessing care, are involved less in shared decision-making process, and are less satisfied with their care. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians also have increased difficulty in accessing good quality care. Women have inferior outcomes after medical and surgical interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-431
Number of pages15
JournalAnesthesiology Clinics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Gender
  • Measurement tools
  • Outcome domains
  • Outcomes
  • Patient satisfaction
  • Race
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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