Although many different chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer have been used, none are considered ideal. This has stimulated investigations of alternative forms of therapy, including immunotherapy. Contained within this therapeutic category are bacterial agents such as Bacille Calmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum and a streptococcal preparation, OK-432, as well as the interferon inducer polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic and passive immunotherapy with sensitized pig lymphocytes. With the exception of BCG, most forms of immunotherapy have not been been effective in the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. This paper reviews immunotherapy with emphasis on the studies of BCG as prophylaxis against and treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
ASJC Scopus subject areas