Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by type 2 inflammation with accumulation of activated group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and elevation of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). A member of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), TNFSF15, is known to induce the production of type 2 cytokines in ILC2s. Although ILC2s have been implicated in CRSwNP, the presence and role of TNFSFs in ILC2-mediated type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP has not been elucidated. Here, we investigate the involvement of TNFSFs in ILC2-mediated type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP. We found that receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANK-L (TNFSF11)) was significantly elevated in nasal polyps (NPs), and that the receptor of RANK-L, RANK, was expressed on ILC2s in human peripheral blood and NPs. An agonistic antibody against RANK induced production of type 2 cytokines in human ILC2s, and TSLP significantly enhanced this reaction. The membrane-bound RANK-L was detected mainly on CD45 + immune cells, including TH2 cells in NPs. The co-culture of NP-derived ILC2s and TH2 cells significantly enhanced production of type 2 cytokines, and anti-RANK-L monoclonal antibody suppressed this enhancement. In conclusion, RANK-L, together with TSLP, may play an inductive role in the ILC2-mediated type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy